Research Studies

Clinical Efficacy of a West African Sorghum bicolor-Based Traditional Herbal Preparation Jobelyn Shows Increased Hemoglobin and CD4 + T-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV + Patients

This is the first controlled study conducted to evaluate efficacy of Jobelyn on immune status in HIV + patients. The data suggest that consumption of Jobelyn contributed to improved hemoglobin levels and increased CD4 + T-cell counts in Nigerian HIV + patients. Further studies are needed to examine similar effects in other populations, and to elaborate on the underlying mechanisms, specifically, whether the consumption of Jobelyn supported multiple aspects of bone marrow function.

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West African Sorghum bicolor Leaf Sheaths Have Anti-Inflammatory and Immune-Modulating Properties In Vitro

Both aqueous and nonaqueous compounds contributed to reduced reactive oxygen species formation by inflammatory PMN cells, and reduced the migration of these cells in response to the inflammatory chemoattractant leukotriene B4. Distinct effects were seen on lymphocyte and monocyte subsets in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The aqueous extract of SBLS triggered robust upregulation of the CD69 activation marker on CD3 – CD56 + natural killer (NK) cells, whereas the ethanol extract of SBLS triggered similar upregulation of CD69 on CD3 + CD56 + NKT cells, CD3 + T lymphocytes, and monocytes. This was accompanied by many-fold increases in the chemokines RANTES/CCL5, Mip-1a/CCL3, and MIP-1b/CCL4. Both aqueous and nonaqueous compounds contribute to anti-inflammatory effects, combined with multiple effects on immune cell activation status.

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Antidepressant-like Property of Jobelyn ® , an African Unique Herbal Formulation in Mice

Jobelyn ® has antidepressant-like activity, which may be related to the stimulation of serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways. The ability of Jobelyn ® to delay the onset of immobility and to prolong the struggling time support its use as energizer in general body weakness or exhaustion.

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Effect of Jobelyn ® on intruder- and isolation-induced aggressive behavior in mice

JB (5, 10 or 50 mg/kg) decreased aggressive behaviorswithout impairing the defensive mechanisms of mice. PCPA (20 mg/kg), an inhibitor of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) biosynthesis, increased aggressive responses and reduced the anti-aggressive effect of JB. FL (10 mg/kg), a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, significantly suppressed aggression but did not alter the effect of JB on aggression. MS (50 mg/kg), a 5-HT receptor antagonist, reduced aggression and enhanced the effect of JB on aggression.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that JB has antiaggressiveactivity, which may be related to the enhancement of serotonergic system.

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Evaluation of the Effect of Jobelyn® on Chemoconvulsants- Induced Seizure in Mice

JB (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o) could only delay the onset of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (85 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice. However, it did not offer any protection against seizure episodes, as it failed to prevent the animals, from exhibiting tonic-clonic convulsions caused by pentylenetetrazole (85 mg/kg, i.p.), strychnine (2 mg/kg) or picrotoxin (6 mg/kg, i.p.). On the other hand, diazepam (2 mg/kg, p.o.), offered 100% protection against convulsive seizures, induced by pentylenetetrazole (85 mg/kg, i.p.). However, it failed to prevent seizures produced by strychnine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) or picrotoxin (6 mg/kg, i.p.).
Discussion: Our results suggest that JB could not prevent the examined chemoconvulsantsinduced convulsions. However, its ability to delay the latency to seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole suggests that JB might be effective in the control of the seizure spread in epileptic brains.

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Antioxidant Property of Jobelyn as the Possible Mechanism Underlying its Anti-amnesic Activity in Rodents

JB was found to produce a significant increase in the level of alternation behavior compared with the control, suggesting anti-amnesic activity. Also, JB reversed the memory impairment induced by scopolamine, which further indicates anti-amnesic property. Furthermore, JB demonstrated a significant inhibition of MDA formation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats, indicating antioxidant property. In addition, it increased the defense armory of the brain tissues, as it significantly increased the concentrations of GSH in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. However, JB did not demonstrate any inhibitory effectagainst AChE activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats in comparison with the control group.

Discussion: This investigation provides evidence that suggests that JB has anti-amnesic and antioxidant properties. Although the present data suggest that the anti-amnesic property of JB might be related to its antioxidant activity, more studies are necessary to clarify this observation.

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Jobelyn ® pretreatment ameliorates symptoms of psychosis in experimental models

JB (5 – 50 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited stereotypy induced by amphetamine (10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or apomorphine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), which suggests antipsychotic activity. Furthermore, JB (5 – 50 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced lethality in aggregated mice and inhibited hyperactivity induced by amphetamine, respectively. However, JB (5 – 50 mg/kg, p.o.) did not cause cataleptic behavior, as it failed to alter the duration of stay of the animals on the inclined plane.

Conclusions: Taken together, these findings suggest that JB exhibits antipsychotic-like activity, devoid of the adverse effect of cataleptic behavior, and may offer some beneficial effects in the symptomatic relief of psychotic ailments.

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Luteolin, a flavonoid with potentials for cancer prevention and therapy

Abstract

Luteolin, 3′,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, is a common flavonoid that exists in many types of plants including fruits, vegetables, and medicinal herbs. Plants rich in luteolin have been used in Chinese traditional medicine for treating various diseases such as hypertension, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. Having multiple biological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-allergy and anticancer, luteolin functions as either an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant biochemically. The biological effects of luteolin could be functionally related to each other. For instance, the anti-inflammatory activity may be linked to its anticancer property. Luteolin’s anticancer property is associated with the induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Furthermore, luteolin sensitizes cancer cells to therapeutic-induced cytotoxicity through suppressing cell survival pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and stimulating apoptosis pathways including those that induce the tumor suppressor p53. These observations suggest that luteolin could be an anticancer agent for various cancers. Furthermore, recent epidemiological studies have attributed a cancer prevention property to luteolin. In this review, we summarize the progress of recent research on luteolin, with a particular focus on its anticancer role and molecular mechanisms underlying this property of luteolin.

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